Atelopus certus

Class Amphibia - Amphibians » order Anura » family Bufonidae - Toads
Atelopus certus - Barbour, 1923
Size male: 32 mm.
Size female: 42 mm.

Atelopus certus Atelopus certus
Atelopus certus.                                                                                                               Atelopus certus in amplexus.

Atelopus certus Atelopus certus
Juvenile Atelopus certus.                                                                                                   Beutiful coloration and patterns at this A. certus.

Geographic Range
Native to Panama.
This species is endemic to Darien, Panama. It is currently only known from the Serrania del Sapo in south-western Darién Province, Panama. It is suspected that the species is more widely distributed and may range through much more of Parque Nacional Darién. Atelopus certus has been found at altitudes between 50-1150 meter asl (Above sea level).

Atelopus certus
Atelopus certus near a stream.


This species is reasonably common within its small known range. It has been recorded as late as in 2011. It seems like the species trend is slowly decreasing and it is also in range on the chytridomyscosis that is progressing through Panamá. Within a few years it is more than possible that it reaches the Atelpus certus habitat. This species is in serious risk from the chytrid fungus. At moment the Chytrid is confirmed in the Chagres National Park east of the Panamá Canal and it is in progress to the Province of Darién and Kuna Yala. A small hope is that this species occur at lower altitude than the species that has been totally extinct but it is for sure a serious threat. Also deforestation of habitat for agricultural use and general water pollution might be a threat.


One of the expeditions for Atelopus certus           Photograping Atelopus certus
The expedition in 2010.

Atelopus certus was last seen: march 2011 (Angel Sosa, Jorge Guerrel, Nancy Fairchild) during a rescue and monitoring project for the Panama Amphibian Rescue and Coservation Project. The main objective was to collect individuals of Atelopus certus to reproduce in captivity at the facilities of the project in the Parque Munical Summit, under the lead of Dr. Roberto Ibañez.
June 2010 (Brian Gratwicke, Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project).

This is a terrestrial species inhabiting premontane and montane forest between 500 to 1150 m asl. Breeding and larval development takes place in forest streams.

Toad mountain           Atelopus certus habitat          Atelopus certus habitat
Toad Mountain (Cerro Sapo). Habitat from a stream on Toad Mountain. Habitat for Atelopus certus.


Rescue Projects
Atelopus certus was successfully breeded during 2011 by the Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project. Here is some photos from the juveniles. Hopefully we will continue to get reports and photos of how the project is progressing.

Juvenile A. certus breeded by Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project           Juvenile A. certus breeded by Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project          Juvenile A. certus breeded by Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project          Juvenile A. certus breeded by Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project
Atelopus certus - successfully breeded juveniles.


Sources, References, more information & links
Roberto Ibañez, Cesar A. Jaramillo & Frank A Solis (1995) - A new species of Atelopus from Panama. PDF acessible.
Roy W. McDiarmid (1971) - Comparative Morpholgy and Evolution of Frogs of the Neotropical Genera Atelopus, Dendrophryniscus, Melanophryniscus and Oreeophrynella. PDF accessible.